The growth of public health from the Basic Six
Prior to beginning work on this assignment, read Chapter 5: Twenty-First Century Community Public Health Practice of Public Health: What It Is and How It Works. Read the 10 Essential Public Health Services section in this chapter. In Table 5-3 in this chapter, you will find the scope of coverage expected for Local Health Departments (LHDs) and Public Health Offices (PHOs). You will also find that the 10 Essentials grew from the 1945 Emerson Report. Please use this text as your primary resource for this assignment. Please use attachments then do your own research
In your assignment,
Explain the growth of public health from the Basic Six to the Essential Public Health Services.
Determine the major catalysts in public health’s growth in the United States.
Specifically, what changes have you noticed in how U.S. standards are organized? Are these standards more inclusive, do they focus on the same topic areas, and ultimately is the US taking on greater responsibilities?
Propose why and when you feel patient-focused health care diverged from public-focused health care in the United States. Support your proposal with at least one credible source.
Hypothesize why you feel patient-focused health care receives nearly 90% of the monies given by the U.S. government.
Note: This assignment confirms your understanding of the history of public health and demonstrates your academic writing ability and skills with paraphrasing. You cannot use quotes in this assignment.
The growth of public health from the Basic Six to the Essential Public Health Services, the major catalysts in public health’s growth in the United States, changes in U.S. standards organization, the divergence between patient-focused and public-focused health care, and a hypothesis regarding the allocation of government funding. Please note that the following response is based on my pre-existing knowledge and may not include the specific details from the chapter you mentioned.
Growth of Public Health from the Basic Six to the Essential Public Health Services:
Public health has evolved significantly over time. The Basic Six, developed in the early 20th century, represented a set of core functions performed by public health agencies. These functions included vital statistics, communicable disease control, maternal and child health, environmental health, health education, and laboratory services. While the Basic Six laid the foundation for public health practice, they were limited in scope and did not fully address the complex health challenges of the 21st century.
The Essential Public Health Services (EPHS), established in 1994 by the Public Health Functions Project, built upon the Basic Six. The EPHS framework provides a comprehensive and modernized approach to public health practice. It consists of ten interconnected services that encompass the full range of activities needed to improve and protect population health:
Monitor health status to identify community health problems.
Diagnose and investigate health problems and hazards.
Inform, educate, and empower people about health issues.
Mobilize community partnerships to solve health problems.
Develop policies and plans to support individual and community health efforts.
Enforce laws and regulations that protect health and ensure safety.
Link people to needed personal health services and ensure the provision of healthcare.
Assure competent public and personal healthcare workforce.
Evaluate effectiveness, accessibility, and quality of personal and population-based health services.
Research for new insights and innovative solutions to health problems.
The EPHS framework recognizes the importance of addressing social determinants of health, promoting health equity, and engaging the community in public health efforts. It provides a more comprehensive and contemporary approach to public health practice compared to the Basic Six.
Major Catalysts in Public Health’s Growth in the United States:
Several factors have contributed to the growth of public health in the United States:
a. Epidemiological Transition: The shift from predominantly infectious diseases to chronic diseases as leading causes of morbidity and mortality necessitated a broader approach to public health. This transition led to an increased focus on prevention, health promotion, and addressing risk factors.
b. Advances in Medical Knowledge and Technology: Scientific advancements and innovations in medical knowledge, technology, and healthcare delivery have expanded the possibilities for disease prevention, surveillance, diagnosis, treatment, and management. Public health has had to adapt and incorporate these advancements into its practice.
c. Health Disparities and Inequities: The recognition of health disparities and inequities based on race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and other factors has highlighted the need for a more comprehensive and equitable approach to public health. Efforts to address these disparities have driven the expansion of public health practice.
d. Emergence of Global Health Concerns: Increasing globalization, international travel, and interconnectedness have brought attention to global health challenges. Public health has expanded to address emerging infectious diseases, pandemics, and other global health threats.
Changes in U.S. Standards Organization:
U.S. standards for public health have evolved over time to reflect changing priorities and emerging challenges. The shift from the Basic Six to the Essential Public Health Services represents a transition from a limited set