Posted: February 9th, 2023

Theories & Theorist Comparison Paper

CRITERIA for Wk1: Theories & Theorist Comparison Paper – Points
APA: Title Page, Grammar, punctuation & intext citations present & correct, 3 scholarly References- APA7 format; See the APA resources in the library or link at the bottom of this paper. 1
MUST Choose 2 theorists ONLY from our Varcarolis text (Chapter 3-Freud, Erickson, Maslow, Sullivan, Peplau, Watson, Skinner, Rogers, or Beck). Describe and list major ideas presented. 2
History of the Theorist who developed the theory. (MUST Include early childhood and adolescence) 2
Compare and contrast similarities and differences of the theories. 1
Describe how each theory could be used in a specific NURSING patient example 2
1. Conclude with your own thoughts on the theories.
2. Body of paper is 2/3 pages;
3. Grammarly PLAGIARISM report attached. See FREE Account link below through the Rasmussen library– on the internet you pay $30 2
Total 10

Submit a paper which compares and contrasts two mental health theories (!no nursing theorists!):
You may choose your theories from the textbook or from other sources.
Describe each theory, including some history about the person who developed the theory and the major ideas and applications of the theory.
Describe the ways in which the two theories are similar, and how they differ.
Include a statement of how each theory could be used in your nursing practice. Include specific patient examples if you have them. You may also critique the theory: Is there anything with which you disagree or are there any problems you can identify?
It is expected that this essay will be 2-3 pages in length (not including the title page), double-spaced. Your paper should include an introduction and conclusion and proper APA citations from any source material you use, including your text.

Wk1: Theories & Theorist Comparison Paper
Abraham Maslow’s theory of motivation is based on the idea that people have a hierarchy of needs that must be fulfilled in order for them to reach their full potential. At the base of the hierarchy are basic physiological needs, such as the need for food, shelter, and sleep. Once these needs are met, people can move on to safety needs, such as the need for security and protection.

Once safety needs are met, people can move on to the need for love and belonging, followed by the need for esteem and self-respect. At the top of the hierarchy is the need for self-actualization, which is the desire to fulfill one’s potential and achieve personal growth.

Jean Watson’s theory of caring is based on the idea that caring is an essential aspect of nursing and is essential for the healing process. Watson’s theory focuses on the importance of human caring relationships and the role that nurses play in promoting health and well-being. According to Watson, caring involves creating a therapeutic environment that is supportive and respectful, and that fosters a sense of trust and empathy between the nurse and the patient.
Wk1: Theories & Theorist Comparison Paper
Description, History, and Application
The selected theories are Maslow’s theory of motivation and Jean Watson theory of caring. Abraham Maslow was the first to introduce the concept of hierarchy of needs in 1943 (Li, 2020). The argument by Maslow was elaborating the diverse needs of human beings and how they change as they progress through different clusters. Maslow argued that human beings start by the motivation to fulfill the basic needs of food and shelter and eventually move to the desire for self-actualization (Li, 2020). The concept has been applied in various sectors including nursing since it argues that nurses strive to achieve the basic needs as they move to higher levels of achievement. Human beings move across the different levels including physiological, safety, love and belonging, esteem, and self-actualization (Hayre-Kwan et al., 2021). According to the US psychologist, Abraham Maslow, people are motivated to achieve the basic needs before they can move to the higher goals.
Jean Watson theory is another important theory which argue on the importance of caring for human beings. The theory indicates that nursing is not just about providing care but an attempt to bring a human being to the optimal level of health (Alharbi & Baker, 2020). It is about regenerating life energies and potentiating the capabilities of a human being. The benefits of human caring are immeasurable since they promote self-actualization. The theory of human caring was coined in 1946 by Jean Watson (Riegel et al., 2018). The argument shows that the focus is to provide care and reduce suffering both for the person who is suffering and the person attempting to alleviate the suffering.
Similarities and Differences
The two theories are important in addressing the human need for care. Maslow’s theory indicates that it is vital to care for the basic needs of human beings. Similarly, the theory of human caring shows that human caring is a basic need. For instance, people have the basic need to achieve optimal care and live without illness (Riegel et al., 2018). Maslow’s theory shows that human beings cannot progress in life to achieve higher goals if the basic needs are not met. The theory of human caring argues that some of the basic needs of the patients includes expressing compassion, upholding dignity, and alleviating human suffering. The two theories focus on the comprehensive needs of human beings (Li, 2020). For instance, when a patient is sick, it is important to care for the feelings of the family members who are also hurting. Maslow’s theory of hierarchy indicate that people’s needs should be satisfied across different levels of life. For instance, human beings cannot move to the next level of need if they are not well fed, they do not have shelter or good clothing.
The differences are evident since Jean theory of human caring indicate the need for meeting all the needs of the patient and the nurse. Conversely, Maslow’s theory of hierarchy indicates the need for meeting the needs of nurses and patients in a step-by-step approach (Li, 2020). Jean theory of human caring does not indicate the progression of meeting the needs of human beings, both patients of nurses.
Theory in Nursing Practice
The two theories apply to nursing practice since they indicate the need to address the basic needs of nurses in the workplace. Jean theory of human caring indicate that it is vital to meet the basic needs of the nurses (Hayre-Kwan et al., 2021). The theory of human caring indicate that it is vital to meet the basic needs of the patients. For instance, listening to depressed patients, paying attention to the cause of the disease to realize better patient outcomes. Nurses need to find purpose at the workplace, feel appreciated, and satisfied to advance to the higher levels of achievement (Hayre-Kwan et al., 2021). For instance, it is critical to establishing a trusting and caring relationship in the workplace to promote quality outcomes. The good working relationship in a conducive environment will translate into better patient outcomes. Maslow’s theory of nursing indicate that it is difficult to achieve higher and better outcomes without meeting the basic needs (Hayre-Kwan et al., 2021). The theory shows that it is good for nurses to feel good at the workplace.
Review of the Theory
I have nothing to disagree with the theories since they both address the critical issues affecting nursing care. The theories are critical roadmaps to realizing good outcomes both for the patients and the nurses. For instance, a healthcare environment that meets the needs of the nurse will eliminate the risk of medical errors that can harm a patient. It is vital to use the nursing theories since they help the nurses to provide quality care (Alharbi and Baker, 2020). A good example is when nurses face fatigue, burnout, and stress at the workplace. The outcome could be poor judgment, missed care, and poor administration of medication. Healthcare institutions should use the Jean theory of human caring and Maslow’s theory of hierarchy to realize better patient outcomes. The application of Jean theory of caring and Maslow’s theory of hierarchy result into quality patient outcomes.

Alharbi, K. M., & Baker, O. G. (2020). Jean Watson’s middle range theory of human caring: A critique. Int. J. Adbanced Multidiscip. Sci. Res, 3, 1-14.
Hayre-Kwan, S., Quinn, B., Chu, T., Orr, P., & Snoke, J. (2021). Nursing and Maslow’s Hierarchy: A Health Care Pyramid Approach to Safety and Security During a Global Pandemic. Nurse leader, 19(6), 590-595.
Li, M. (2020). Effect of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory on Psychotherapy of Patients with Depression. Investigación Clínica, 61(1), 96-103.
Riegel, F., Crossetti, M. D. G. O., & Siqueira, D. S. (2018). Contributions of Jean Watson’s theory to holistic critical thinking of nurses. Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem, 71, 2072-2076.

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