Posted: February 9th, 2023

Drug classifications (e.g., benzodiazepines, ACE inhibitors)

1. Compose at least 2-3 paragraphs all in APA format for each with proper references
2. use link provided with account info below
Read Chapter 1,4,5,6,7,8,9, and 10 in the course text book
Week 1 Assignment
• Pathways to Safer Opioid Use Simulation and Reflection
o View the video – make sure to note the decisions made by James!
o Write down the decisions and the outcomes for each decision in detail as this is what you will be writing about!

Week 1 Discussion Forum Prompt 1
Complete your week 1 discussion prompts. You must complete:

Discussion Prompt 1:
Discuss the development of new drugs in the United States as compared to other countries, and evaluate the pharmacoeconomic issues that lead to high prescription costs in the United States.

Week 1 Discussion Forum Prompt 2
Discussion Prompt 2:
There are several drug classifications (e.g., benzodiazepines, ACE inhibitors). Choose a classification and one drug within that classification, and discuss the pharmacological aspects of this particular drug. Give examples of how and when this drug is used.
Week 1 Discussion Forum Prompt 1

The development of new drugs in the United States is a complex and lengthy process, which typically takes several years and hundreds of millions of dollars to bring a new drug to market. In comparison, the development of new drugs in other countries may have a different regulatory environment and process, which can lead to faster drug approvals and lower costs.
One of the major factors contributing to high prescription costs in the United States is the high cost of research and development (R&D) of new drugs. According to the Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development, the average cost to develop and bring a new drug to market is estimated to be over $2 billion (DiMasi, 2016). This high cost is primarily driven by the need for extensive preclinical testing, clinical trials, and regulatory approval before a new drug can be marketed.
Another factor that contributes to high prescription costs in the United States is the lack of price regulation for prescription drugs. In the US, pharmaceutical companies are allowed to set their own prices for drugs and there is no mechanism for negotiating prices with payers such as private insurance companies or the government. This, in turn, leads to higher prices for consumers and for the healthcare system as a whole.

DiMasi, J. A., & Grabowski, H. G. (2016). The cost of biopharmaceutical R&D: is biotech different? Managerial and Decision Economics, 37(4), 223-232.

Week 1 Discussion Forum Prompt 2
One drug classification is ACE inhibitors, which are a class of drugs used to treat hypertension, heart failure, and other cardiovascular conditions. A commonly used ACE inhibitor is Captopril. Captopril acts by inhibiting the angiotensin-converting enzyme, which in turn leads to decreased production of angiotensin II and a decrease in blood pressure.
Captopril is used to treat hypertension, heart failure and to reduce the risk of death and complications after a heart attack. It also has been used to treat diabetic nephropathy, renovascular hypertension and in some cases of kidney dysfunction. Captopril can also be used in combination with other medications to enhance the effects and reduce the risk of side effects.
Captopril is usually well-tolerated but can cause side effects such as dry cough, headaches, and dizziness. It should be used with caution in patients with renal impairment, and it is not recommended for use in pregnancy.

Katzung, B. G., Trevor, A. J., & Masters, S. B. (2017). Basic and clinical pharmacology. McGraw-Hill Education.

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