Posted: November 14th, 2022

Strengths and Weaknesses

Article Summary
Please I need to summarize the paper in 3 pages only no more than three pages in this 3 pages add 1 picture or 1 table. In addition add one page in the beginning mention the strong and weak points of the article (as a points not paragraph)
so 3 paged summary 1 page weak and strong points of the article( 4 in total). I attached the requirements for this assignment to clarify more.

( in 3 pages summary of the article please show the summary of each section for example I need to include Abstract heading, Introduction heading, Result heading etc. )

Strengths and Weaknesses
The article titled Improvement and Modelling of a Batch Polyelectrolyte Enhanced Ultrafiltration Process for the Recovery of Copper which was authored by Can˜izares, Pe´rez, Camarillo, and Villajos (2005) is characterized by a number of strengths and weaknesses. On the strengths, the article presents technical information in a manner that is understandable and easy to follow. Information on the selection of membranes, whether organic or ceramic, is well explained and justified. The study draws on a unique difference between the two membranes. Additionally, the study procedurally developed the model for batch polyelectrolyte enhanced ultrafiltration process for the recovery of copper. The procedural presentation makes it easy to follow the arguments of the researchers. At the same time, it allows for the replication of the model whether for purposes of experimentation or implementation in the control and cleaning of industrial water in a real-life environment.
The research however had a few weaknesses. The most profound was that it failed to comment on the applicability of a similar model in the selection and isolation of other metal ions. This perspective is only inferred and not expressly mentioned by the research. As an implication it would require that data is separately considered for different metal ions. Besides this weakness, the study failed to include the economics of organic membranes versus ceramic membranes for application in the model. The implications are that he study failed to capture a holistic picture on the viability of the model of research. For instance, it would be necessary to understand whether viability would be affected if the model was implemented with organic membranes as opposed to the ceramic membranes and whether any modifications would be required. These considerations would be important questions for industries to which the model may apply. The considerations also separate basic research from practical research.
The abstract summarizes the study which focused on a model for the extraction of copper from industrial wastewater. The study proposed a model of batch polyelectrolyte enhanced ultrafiltration process for the recovery of copper. The model was proven to save energy and result in selection and concentration of copper from wastewater.
The control and purification of industrial wastewater has been a consistent area of research interest with the focus being on technologies and process for wastewater treatment. However, Can˜izares, Pe´rez, Camarillo, and Villajos (2005) in the introduction to their research noted that research work focusing on the control and purification of wastewater was still limited. The researchers went further to indicate that the research evidence was particularly scanty in the case of selective separation and concentration of certain target ion such as copper ions. Although selective separation and concentration of particular ions had been recommended decades before 2005, the still were no research studies closely focusing on the subject.
Can˜izares, Pe´rez, Camarillo, and Villajos (2005) focused on modelling of a batch polyelectrolyte enhanced ultrafiltration process for the recovery of copper. The researchers noted that there being a lot of aqueous effluents containing copper from surface treatment and electronic industries, there was the need to explore a batch polyelectrolyte enhanced ultrafiltration process for the recovery of copper. The process allows for the selective separation and concentration of copper ions by forming a polyelectrolyte that comprises of Poly(acrylic acid) sodium salt (PAASS). The study indicated that the treatment would be required to be conducted in batches. This required the control of the with volume flow rates lower than 5 cubic meters per day. The specifications of the model works when the two main challenges in wastewater treatment are controlled and the include hold-up volumes in the membranes and the high feed flow rates.
The research set to apply tubular ceramic membrane which the researchers indicated that had been ignored in past research studies that favored organic membranes. The use of tubular ceramic membrane would enable industries to minimize the feed rates and volume by controlling the hydraulic diameter with insertion of an internal rod concentrically in the membrane. The implications would be improvements in the process of control and purification of industrial wastewater with high concentrations of copper ions.
The model works by observing three important features. These include replacement of polymer (PAA Mw 250,000) by PAASS of lower molecular weight (30,000), increase of operation temperature from 25C to 50C, and decrease of hydraulic diameter dh of original module from 6 to 1 by inserting internal rod of 5 mm. These measures result in reduced viscosity of feed solution and increased turbulence inside the membrane. These features result in improved selection and concentration of copper ions from industrial wastewater.
The study was anchored on the permeate flux theory. The theory was used in modeling three factors that include solvent flux, polymer solution flux, and the metal rejection coefficients. The theory explains the reactions enabling the selection and concentration of copper from industrial wastewater.
The study design was experimental. The section explained how the polymer was mixed and prepared using poly(acrylic acid) sodium salt 40% in water w/w (Mw 30,000). The experiment section also focused on other factors such as the temperature and the pH. While the researchers prepared the polymer, the study indicated that Colloid polymer for industrial use was available for industries.
Results and Discussion
The study results showed improvements in the copper ions concentration from 0.01% to 0.04%. With increased concentration of the polyelectrolyte the concentration of the copper ions rose to 0.07% indicating that higher amounts of copper ions are drawn from industrial waste water through the batch polyelectrolyte enhanced ultrafiltration process.
The study established that there were two concerns in the process. These included the transmembrane pressure and the pH levels in the polyelectrolyte. The study noted that the relationship between pH and concentration of the metal ions was not linear such that as polarization increases, the concentration of the metal ions is affected. Similarly, high transmembrane pressure negatively affects the concentration of the metal ions thereby making the process less effective due to limited contact time under high pressure. This creates the need to consider the optimal pressure and pH levels in the modelling of the batch polyelectrolyte enhanced ultrafiltration process for metal ions. The figure below shows the relationship between the pH levels and the metal rejection. As the pH rises the rejection is affected.

Figure 1: PAAS-Copper Experiment
The research tested the viability of the model and indicated that it was a viable model for the selective concentration of metal ions in the cleaning of industrial wastewater. The research established the need for the optimization of the polymer, the pH, and the conditions such as pressure, temperatures, holding volume, and the feed in the application of the model to select and concentrate metal ions. The research established that with the existence of industrial polymers whose costs are way lower than the laboratory polymers the model was viable and would result in improvements in the control and purification industrial wastewater.
Canizares, P., Perez, A., Camarillo, R., & Villajos, M. T. (2005). Improvement and modelling of a batch polyelectrolyte enhanced ultrafiltration process for the recovery of copper. Desalination, 184(1-3), 357-366.

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