Assignment: Go to the Bureau of Justice Statistics
Assignment: Go to the Bureau of Justice Statistics (bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov) website and find a publication that presents statistics on victimizations perceived to be motivated by hate. How does the BJS specifically define a hate crime? How do they measure crimes motivated by hate? How is racial bias measured? What counts as ‘evidence’ of hate crimes?
Assignment: Go to the Rape Victim Advocates website at www.rapevictimadvocates.org (Links to an external site.) Go to “Myths and Facts.” Discuss some facts about rape that you were previously unaware of or some myths you believed. How is rape specifically defined by the Department of Justice? How is it measured? How does rape differ from sexual assault? How is sexual assault measured differently from rape?
Assignment: All web exercises and answer the following questions: (Please type out in paragraph form): What did you learn about hate crimes. How are hate crimes conceptualized and measured? What did you learn about rape? How is rape conceptualized and measured? Explain how you will specifically define and measure the key concepts and variables you are analyzing for your research proposal? (Juveniles tried as Adults and the Death Penalty)
Hate crimes, as defined by the Bureau of Justice Statistics, are prejudice-motivated crimes committed against a person or property based on their racial demographics or perceived membership in a particular social group. Religion, race, sexual orientation, nationality, gender identity, ethnicity, language, and disability are all important considerations (Oudekerk, 2019). There are instruments for measuring hate crimes based on statistics. They include hate symbols left behind, where victims perceive the use of hate language, and finally confirmed statistics from reported cases to bias-motivated crimes committed by police. One of the most well-established methods of measuring racial bias is self-report. However, they are highly susceptible to biased judgment, resulting in distorted results.
There are several myths and stereotypes surrounding rape victims, rapists, and sexual assault. Rape myths are common, and they frequently incite hostility toward the victim. There are a few facts about rape that I was completely unaware of. They include, first and foremost, that the contract is revocable, that an involved parent can change their mind at any time, and that their partner must respect their decisions. Second, in any incident, submission is not cooperation because a victim may submit out of fear of physical assault, especially if a weapon is involved. Another rape act that I am now aware of is that it is the most underreported crime in criminal history.
Rape is defined as any form of penetration, whether vaginal, anus, or oral, no matter how minor, using a body part or object without the victim’s consent. Sex assault encompasses all non-consensual sexual advances, including forced sex, inappropriate touching, inappropriate online messages, or phone calls. Rape is one type of sexual assault (Oudekerk, 2019). Rape is difficult to quantify and distinguish from other types of sexual assault because victims frequently confuse the two. As a result, many cases of sexual assault and rape go unreported. It allows sex offenders and serial rapists to go unpunished for their heinous crimes.
B. Oudekerk (2019). Statistics on hate crimes: Virginia Advisory Committee, US Commission on Civil Rights, 29.