Assignment 10 Hate crimes

July 23, 2022 0 Comments

Assignment 10
Assignment: Go to the Bureau of Justice Statistics ( website and find a publication that presents statistics on victimizations perceived to be motivated by hate. How does the BJS specifically define a hate crime? How do they measure crimes motivated by hate? How is racial bias measured? What counts as ‘evidence’ of hate crimes?

Assignment: Go to the Rape Victim Advocates website at (Links to an external site.) Go to “Myths and Facts.” Discuss some facts about rape that you were previously unaware of or some myths you believed. How is rape specifically defined by the Department of Justice? How is it measured? How does rape differ from sexual assault? How is sexual assault measured differently from rape?

Assignment: All web exercises and answer the following questions: (Please type out in paragraph form): What did you learn about hate crimes. How are hate crimes conceptualized and measured? What did you learn about rape? How is rape conceptualized and measured? Explain how you will specifically define and measure the key concepts and variables you are analyzing for your research proposal? (Juveniles tried as Adults and the Death Penalty)

According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, hate crimes are prejudice-motivated crimes against a person or property based on their racial demographics or perceived membership of a particular social group. For essence, one’s religion, race, sexual orientation, nationality, gender identity, ethnicity, language, and disability (Oudekerk, 2019). There are compendiums of instruments used to measure hate crimes from statistics. They include left behind hate symbols, where victims perceive the use of hate language, and finally confirmed statistics from the reported cases to police-involved bias-motivated crimes. The self-report is one of the most established forms of measuring racial bias. However, they are highly susceptible to biased judgment making results distorted.
Several false beliefs and stereotypes surround rape victims, rapists, and sexual assault. Rape myths are common and often create hostility toward the victim. There are a few facts that I was precisely unaware of regarding rape. They include, firstly, the contract is retractable, an involved parent can change their mind at any point, and their partner must respect their decisions. Secondly, submission is not cooperation in any incident as a victim may submit for fear of physical assault, especially where a weapon is involved. Notably, another rape act that I know now is that it is ranked as the most underreported crime in criminal history.
Rape is defined as any form of penetration, be it the vagina or anus or oral, no matter how slight, using a body part or object without consent from the victim. Sex assault describes all forms of non-consensual sexual advances be it forced sex, inappropriate touching, inappropriate online messages, or phone calls. Rape is one of the forms of sexual assault (Oudekerk, 2019). It is challenging to measure rape and delineate it from other forms of sexual assault because victims tend to confuse one with the other. Thus, many sexual assault and rape cases go unreported. It leaves sex offenders and serial rapists to go unpunished for the cruel and heinous acts they commit.

Oudekerk, B. (2019). Hate crime statistics: slides, Virginia Advisory Committee, US Commission on Civil Rights, 29.