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Psychological Well being Components

©2021 American Affiliation of Essential-Care Nurses doi:

Background Communication is essential to understanding the emotional state of vital care sufferers.

Goal To research the effectiveness of the communi- cative intervention often called CONECTEM, which incorpo-

charges fundamental communication expertise and augmentative

various communication, in bettering ache, nervousness,

and posttraumatic stress dysfunction signs in vital

care sufferers transported by ambulance.

Strategies This examine had a quasi-experimental design with intervention and management teams. It was carried out at Four

emergency medical facilities in northern Spain. One of many

facilities served because the intervention unit, with the opposite Three

serving as management models. The nurses on the intervention cen-

ter underwent coaching in CONECTEM. Pretest and posttest

measurements have been obtained utilizing a visible analog scale to

measure ache, the short-version State-Trait Anxiousness Inven-

tory to measure nervousness, and the Impression of Occasion Scale to

measure posttraumatic stress dysfunction signs.

Outcomes Within the comparative pretest-posttest evaluation of the teams, vital variations have been present in favor of

the intervention group (Pillai multivariate, F 2,110

= 57.973,

P < .001). The intervention was related to improve-

ments in ache (imply visible analog scale rating, Three.Three pre-

take a look at vs 1.1 posttest; P < .001) and posttraumatic stress

dysfunction signs (imply Impression of Occasion Scale rating,

17.Eight pretest vs 11.2 posttest; P < .001). Furthermore, the per-

centage of sufferers whose nervousness improved was increased

within the intervention group than within the management group (62%

vs Four%, P < .001).

Conclusion The communicative intervention CONECTEM was efficient in bettering psychoemotional state amongst

vital care sufferers throughout medical transport. (American

Journal of Essential Care. 2021;30:45-54)

A COMMUNICATIVE INTERVENTION TO IMPROVE THE PSYCHOEMOTIONAL STATE OF CRITICAL CARE PATIENTS TRANSPORTED BY AMBULANCE By Marta Prats Arimon, PhD, BD, RN, Montserrat Puig Llobet, PhD, BD, RN, Juan Roldán-Merino, PhD, MSN, RN, Carmen Moreno-Arroyo, PhD, MSN, RN, Miguel Ángel Hidalgo Blanco, PhD, MSN, RN, and Teresa Lluch-Canut, PhD, BD, RN AJCC AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CRITICAL CARE, January 2021, Quantity 30, No. 1 45

46 AJCC AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CRITICAL CARE, January 2021, Quantity 30, No. 1

E ffective communication is essential to understanding the difficulties implicit in vital ill- ness.1,2 Critically unwell sufferers typically expertise psychoemotional signs corresponding to unhappiness, anger, nervousness, fear, concern, stress, nervousness, and ache,Three-5 that are associated to their incapability to speak.6,7 As well as, the decreased stage of consciousness of those sufferers can result in states of confusion or delirium,Eight,9 which alter their perceptions

of actuality.10 The unfavourable emotions contribute to the frustration generated by the shortage of commu- nication and may have an effect on the affected person’s notion of the standard of nursing care obtained.1,2,11 Probably the most prevalent unfavourable psychoemotional states amongst critically unwell sufferers are ache (experi- enced by 70%-89% of sufferers),12,13 nervousness (30%-60%), and posttraumatic stress (27%).Three,14-16

Analysis on in-ambulance communication between vital care sufferers and nurses first emerged in Europe.17-19 In the US, efficient commu- nication has been a top quality normal for the remedy of vital care sufferers for a number of years.20 An increas- ing quantity of analysis on the subject has been per- shaped in Spain.21

Insufficient communication attributable to bodily, cognitive, and psychological limitations is without doubt one of the predominant issues affecting vital care sufferers.10,22,23 Misunderstandings and/or misinterpretations gen- erate insecurity and frustration amongst nurses and

cut back their effectiveness in treating ache, offering emotional assist, and assembly sufferers’ wants.24,25 Analysis on patient-nurse communication ought to contain measurement of ache in addition to psychoemo- tional variables corresponding to nervousness and the consequences of trauma, which may result in signs of posttraumatic stress dysfunction (PTSD) in critically unwell sufferers.26

Patak et al27 and Happ et al28 have been among the many first authors to suggest a set of communicative inter- ventions primarily based on augmentative various commu- nication (AAC) and fundamental communication expertise (BCS) to be used with vital care sufferers. These recommenda- tions led to the event of assorted AAC mod- els.29,30 Nurses obtained coaching primarily based on these fashions,31,32 with the impression assessed by way of enchancment within the remedy of critically unwell sufferers. Nevertheless, few research have been performed through which these methods have been utilized outdoors of the hospital intensive care unit (ICU).33-35 The hostile situations prevailing in an ambulance setting, corresponding to restricted house and automobile motion with result- ing discomfort, additional hinder communication with the vital care affected person36,37 and negatively have an effect on the affected person’s bodily, psychological, and emotional well- being.38,39 Due to this fact, further analysis on nurse- affected person communication on this context is required. This examine was performed to research the impact of implementation of AAC and BCS on the psychoemo- tional state of vital care sufferers being transported by ambulance.

Strategies This examine had a quasi-experimental design with

a management group and an intervention group and concerned preintervention and postintervention measurements of ache, nervousness, and PTSD symp- toms. The CONECTEM communicative intervention was utilized in vital care sufferers within the intervention group transported by ambulance, whereas the tra- ditional care course of was used for management group sufferers (Desk 1).

In regards to the Authors Marta Prats Arimon is an affiliate professor, College of Nursing, College of Medication and Well being Sciences, Univer- sity of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; a collaborating pro- fessor, College of Nursing, College of Medication and Well being Sciences, College Ramon Llull, Barcelona, Spain; and a registered nurse, Emergency Division, Hospital Transfronterer de Cerdanya, Puigcerdà (Girona), Spain. Montserrat Puig Llobet is a professor and director of the Psychological and Public Well being Division and director of the grasp’s program in nursing interventions in advanced continual sufferers, College of Nursing, College of Medi- cine and Well being Sciences, College of Barcelona and a researcher within the CARINGCF Analysis Group, Tarrag- ona, Spain and the GIRISAME Analysis Group, Madrid, Spain. Juan Roldán-Merino is a professor, Campus Docent, Sant Joan de Déu-Fundació Privada, College of Nursing, College of Barcelona; a researcher within the GIESS Analysis Group and the GEIMAC Analysis Group, Barcelona, Spain; and coordinator of the GIRISAME Analysis Group and the REICESMA Analysis Group, Madrid, Spain. Carmen Moreno-Arroyo and Miguel Ángel Hidalgo Blanco are professors within the Division of Basic and Medical- Surgical Nursing and administrators of the grasp’s program in vital care nursing, College of Nursing, College of Medication and Well being Sciences, College of Barcelona. Teresa Lluch- Canut is a professor of psychosocial and psychological well being, College of Nursing, College of Medication and Well being Sci- ences, College of Barcelona; and a researcher within the GEIMAC Analysis Group, Barcelona, Spain.

Corresponding writer: Montserrat Puig Llobet, PhD, BD, RN, Director, Psychological and Public Well being Division, College of Nursing, College of Medication and Well being Sciences, Univer- sity of Barcelona, C/ Feixa Llarga s/n 08870–Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain. (e-mail: AJCC AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CRITICAL CARE, January 2021, Quantity 30, No. 1 47

Setting and Pattern The examine was carried out at Four emergency medical

system facilities in Catalonia, a area of northeastern

Spain. Choice of the facilities was primarily based on their comparable traits: location in a rural space with a geographically dispersed inhabitants, transfers that

Intervention group: CONECTEM communicative intervention

Desk 1 CONECTEM communicative intervention and routine communicative motion of nonhospital nurses

STRATEGY 1 Communication with the affected person based on the coaching and

pointers established within the communicative intervention, focusing

primarily on the next:

• Provoke the patient-nurse interplay

• Steady communication in the course of the journey

• The frequency and period of the interplay rely on the

affected person’s necessities on the time of transportation

• All the time keep eye contact in the course of the interplay

• Pause to permit the affected person to course of the knowledge

• Make clear and double-check all messages from the affected person in

order to keep away from misinterpretations

• Present empathy, be assertive, and use energetic listening methods

• Chorus from making worth judgments about sufferers and/or

their household scenario

• Take note of nonverbal communication: gestures of ache,

restlessness, or sighing

STRATEGY 2 Communication with the affected person based on the coaching and

pointers established within the communicative intervention, focusing

primarily on the next:

• Carry out the communication actions in Technique 1

• Extremely exact and particular language, utilizing brief sentences to

facilitate efficient communication

• Set up a sign for sure, one for no, and one for “I don’t perceive”

• Use the CONECTEM assist materials

Boards for conveying feelings

Boards for conveying necessities

Worldwide dictionary symbols

• The affected person is requested to level or point out what they want to com-

municate. If they’re unable to do that, the nurse asks them

• Nonverbal communication

Take note of gestures of ache, restlessness, or sighing

Bodily contact

Enjoyable music (use of the CONECTEM musical assist materials)

STRATEGY Three Communication with the affected person based on the coaching and

pointers established within the communicative intervention, focusing

primarily on the next:

• Guarantee a peaceable environment, guaranteeing that units are silenced and

their alarms are off, and dim the lighting to assist the affected person to relaxation

• Be looking out for modifications in bodily indicators

• Observe facial expressions and motor actions

• Verbal communication

Provoke the interplay

Clarify any related and appropriate procedures and data to

the affected person

Soothing and unhurried tone of voice

• Appropriate coaching on bodily contact

• Enjoyable music (use of the CONECTEM musical assist materials)

Communication with the affected person in accordance with the

social and communication expertise of nurses who’ve

obtained no coaching or guideline(s)

Introduction of the nurse to the affected person and rationalization of

the transportation process

Interplay originally and finish of the transportation

Communication on the affected person’s request

Brief patient-nurse interactions associated to the affected person’s bodily

situation or the progress of the journey

Clichéd questions and sentences

How are you doing?

We’re virtually there.

There are x km left.

If there may be any drawback, let me know.

Communication with the affected person in accordance with the

social and communication expertise of nurses who’ve

obtained no coaching or guideline(s)

Lack of verbal communication attributable to lack of sources

Use of nurse’s personal sources

Lip studying

Gesticulation or indicators

Writing on paper

Nonverbal communication on the nurse’s discretion

Communication with the affected person in accordance with the social

and communication expertise of the nurses

Guarantee a peaceable environment to facilitate affected person relaxation

Be looking out for modifications in bodily indicators

Observe affected person motor actions

No verbal communication with the affected person

Bodily contact and nonverbal communication on the

nurse’s discretion

Management group: routine communicative motion

Glasgow Coma Scale rating 15 (sufferers with no communicative difficulties)

Glasgow Coma Scale rating 9-14 (sufferers with communication difficulties concerning comprehension and/or expression)

Glasgow Coma Scale rating ≤Eight (sedated or intubated sufferers, unconscious sufferers, sufferers with no verbal response)

48 AJCC AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CRITICAL CARE, January 2021, Quantity 30, No. 1

are prolonged in each time and distance, and slender, winding roads of their territory.

The examine inhabitants consisted of all critically unwell sufferers transferred by ambulance to the Four emer- gency medical facilities chosen. One of many facilities (most handy for the principal investigator) was chosen for implementation of the CONECTEM com- municative intervention (the intervention group), with sufferers from the opposite Three facilities constituting the management group. The nurses caring for the inter- vention group have been beforehand educated in BCS and AAC to arrange them for the CONECTEM interven- tion within the ambulance.

The examine pattern, recruited from consecutive circumstances, was nonprobabilistic. Critically unwell sufferers have been included within the examine in the event that they have been aged 18 or

older and required switch by ambulance to a secondary or tertiary hospital for both diag- nosis or remedy. Sufferers have been excluded in the event that they have been transferred by helicopter.

The pattern dimension was esti- mated on the premise of the prev- alence of tension in vital care sufferers, which is 60%, accord- ing to the literature.40 With an

of .05 and an influence of 80% to detect a distinction of 25% between the two teams and with estimated losses of 10%, 69 sufferers have been wanted in every

group. (Finally, 68 sufferers participated within the intervention group and 52 sufferers within the management group—see Outcomes.)

Information Assortment The emergency medical staff nurses from every of

the Four collaborating websites have been tasked with information collec- tion. The nurses working on the heart the place the inter- vention was carried out collected the information for the intervention group. Nurses working on the different Three cen- ters collected the information for the management group. Information col- lection started as soon as the affected person was within the ambulance and concluded upon their arrival on the vacation spot. The imply switch period was 1.5 to 2 hours. Three psychoemotional responses typical on this scenario have been assessed: ache, nervousness, and signs of PTSD. The nurses assessed the examine variables utilizing validated scales earlier than and after the CONECTEM intervention within the intervention group, and earlier than and after trans- port within the management group. Sociodemographic and well being variables have been additionally collected (intercourse, age, kind of

illness, diploma of consciousness, and whether or not or not the affected person was fitted with an endotracheal tube). The info assortment course of lasted 6 months.

Devices The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)41 was used to

establish probably the most appropriate CONECTEM intervention technique for every affected person primarily based on their diploma of con- sciousness. This device was chosen as a result of it’s com- monly utilized by nurses working outdoors the hospital, allowing fast evaluation and bearing in mind an individual’s verbal and motor responses, which influ- ence communication.

The next devices have been used to evaluate the psychoemotional variables of ache, nervousness, and PTSD signs, respectively:

Visible Analog Scale. The visible analog scale (VAS)42 was used to measure the depth of the ache described by the affected person. The VAS can take the type of centime- ters or numbers from Zero to 10. Ache was additionally dichoto- mized into 2 classes: absence (VAS rating of Zero) and presence (VAS rating of 1-10).

State-Trait Anxiousness Stock. A modified model of Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiousness Stock43 was used to measure nervousness. This scale consists of 6 gadgets divided into 2 classes for nervousness: current (anx- ious, nervous, fearful) and absent (calm, comfort- ready, “I really feel calm”).

Impression of Occasion Scale. The Impression of Occasion Scale44 contains 15 gadgets: 6 measures of intrusion, Eight of avoidance, and 1 of hyperactivity. The rating for every merchandise ranges from Zero to five, with Zero indicating by no means, 1 not often, Three generally, and 5 typically. A complete rating is cal- culated, with increased values indicating higher stress ranges. A complete rating of lower than Eight.5 signifies gentle stress; Eight.5 to 19, average stress; and higher than 19, extreme stress.

If the affected person has a GCS rating of lower than 9 and is receiving mechanical air flow, it has been recom- mended that the affected person’s ache be measured utilizing the Behavioral Ache Scale45 and the affected person’s agitation- sedation state be measured utilizing the Ramsay Sedation Scale and the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale.46 A case report kind was used to gather information on sociode- mographic and well being variables.

Intervention and Intervention Protocol The CONECTEM intervention consists of BCS

corresponding to visible contact, message clarification, empa- thy, and energetic listening47 and makes use of AAC methods corresponding to panels with icons representing necessities and feelings and the worldwide dictionary indicators. 29,48 Different AAC methods corresponding to writing

The impression of the communicative inter-

vention on critically unwell sufferers transported

by ambulance was evaluated in relation to ache, nervousness, and

signs of posttrau- matic stress dysfunction. AJCC AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CRITICAL CARE, January 2021, Quantity 30, No. 1 49

on a board or utilizing superior expertise have been dominated out due to the problem and complexity of per- forming them in the course of the ambulance switch (ie, automobile motion, slender roads, the time wanted to point out the affected person and nurses how an digital machine works, and the affected person’s situation). The inter- vention was designed by a gaggle of consultants who authorized its software throughout ambulance trans- port. Earlier than use of the CONECTEM intervention, the nurses who wished to take part within the examine underwent a coaching program that certified them to hold out the intervention within the ambulance. The coaching was organized into Three modules: the anthro- pology of communication, the psychoemotional state of the critically unwell affected person, and the BCS and AAC utilized in CONECTEM. The coaching lasted 6 hours unfold over 2 days. The coaching strategies used have been function enjoying and case administration. To have the ability to per- kind the CONECTEM intervention, nurses have been required to cross a theoretical-practical posttraining take a look at with a rating of a minimum of 70%.

The intervention was cut up into Three totally different strate- gies based on the affected person’s stage of consciousness. Every technique entailed a sure stage of verbal and non- verbal communication. In distinction, nurses caring for sufferers within the management group used routine communi- cative motion that depends on the nurse’s social and com- munication expertise. The CONECTEM intervention and the routine communicative motion are described in higher element in Desk 1.

Statistical Evaluation Within the descriptive analyses, quantity and share

have been used for categorical variables, whereas median and SD have been used for quantitative variables. The normality of the quantitative variables was verified with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov take a look at. Both the t take a look at or the Mann- Whitney U take a look at was used for evaluation of the quantitative variables, relying on the information distribution. Both the

2 take a look at or the Fisher precise take a look at was used for evaluation of the explicit variables. To research the impression of the intervention on the dependent variables (ache and PTSD signs), we carried out multivariate evaluation of covariance of the pretest-posttest variations between the intervention group and the management group (intro- ducing the pretest rating as a covariable). Lastly, we performed repeated-measures evaluation of variance for the ache and PTSD symptom variables. The Pearson product-moment correlation was used to calculate the relationships between ache, nervousness, and PTSD symp- toms. A P lower than .05 was thought of to point statis- tical significance. IBM SPSS Statistics, model 17.Zero, was used for the statistical evaluation.

Moral Concerns The undertaking was authorized by the impartial

ethics committee of Spain’s regional college (INF-2014-17) and by the board of administrators of Spain’s emergency medical system (20150120_21). The examine was guided by the Helsinki Declaration on moral rules for medical analysis involving human contributors. Every affected person or guardian and every nurse working within the intervention and management teams signed an knowledgeable consent kind to partici- pate within the examine and was assured of confidentiality and information anonymity.

Outcomes Participant Movement

Twelve nurses of the 22 eligible for work with the intervention group have been enrolled and educated within the CONECTEM intervention. All nurses on this group carried out the intervention within the ambulance. A complete of 138 critically unwell sufferers have been consecutively enrolled within the examine: 69 sufferers within the intervention group and 69 within the management group. Seventeen sufferers have been excluded from the management group due to lacking data on the measurement scales, and 1 affected person was excluded from the intervention group due to not being an interhospital switch (see Determine).

Baseline Information The imply (SD) age of the 120 sufferers within the last

pattern was 63.Four (17.7) years. Of the 120 sufferers, 48 (40.Zero%) have been feminine. The most typical illness

Assessed for eligibility

Sufferers (n = 332)


(n = 52) Analyzed

(n = 68)

Chosen for

management group

(n = 69)

Excluded (n = 192)

Didn’t meet inclusion

standards (n = 190)

Declined to take part

(n = 2)

Determine Movement diagram of examine contributors.



(n = 138)

Chosen for

intervention group

(n = 69)

Excluded as a result of

kinds have been

incomplete (n = 17)

Excluded as a result of

not an



(n = 1)

E n

ro ll m

e n

t S

e le

ct e d

F o

ll o

w -u

p A

n a ly

ze d

50 AJCC AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CRITICAL CARE, January 2021, Quantity 30, No. 1

sorts have been coronary heart situation (55 sufferers [45.8%]) and neurological illness (25 sufferers [20.8%]). Ninety-eight (81.7%) of the sufferers have been acutely aware and oriented (GCS rating, 15), 18 (15%) have been con- scious and disoriented (GCS rating, 9-14), and solely Four (Three.Three%) have been intubated and receiving mechanical air flow (GCS rating, ≤Eight) (Desk 2). The psychoemo- tional variables have been analyzed for sufferers with a

GCS rating of higher than 9 (n = 115), as intubated sufferers have been considerably underrepresented.

The prevalence of ache was 68.7% (95% CI, 59.Eight%-76.7%), with a imply rating of two of 10 on the VAS scale. A complete of 80.9% (95% CI, 72.9%-87.Three%) had nervousness. Relating to PTSD signs, 68.7% (95% CI, 59.Eight%-76.7%) of sufferers had average to extreme signs, and 31.Three% (95% CI, 23.Three%-40.2%) had

Variable Whole pattern

(N = 120) Intervention group

(n = 68) Management group

(n = 52)

Desk 2 Baseline traits at pretest for intervention and management teams

Age, imply (SD), y




Kind of illness

Coronary heart






Glasgow Coma Scale rating, imply (vary)

Glasgow Coma Scale rating distribution






Orotracheal intubation



Rating on visible analog scale for ache, median (vary)


Current (rating 1-10)

Absent (rating Zero)

Behavioral Ache Scale

No ache

Ache current

State-Trait Anxiousness Stock



Rating on Ramsay Sedation Scale, median (vary)

Rating on Impression of Occasion Scale, median (vary)

Impression of Occasion Scale

No or few signs

Average signs

Extreme signs

Rating on Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale, median (vary)

.76 a

.85 b

.85 b

.46 c

.75 b

.58 b

.08 c

.42 b

>.99 b

.05 b

>.99 c

.06 c

.007 b

>.99 c

63.9 (17.Eight)

20 (38)

32 (62)

28 (54)

Three (6)

12 (23)

1 (2)

Three (6)

5 (10)

15 (Three-15)

44 (85)

6 (12)

Zero (Zero)

Zero (Zero)

2 (Four)

2 (Four)

50 (96)

2 (Zero-7)

32 (64)

18 (36)

2 (100)

Zero (Zero)

36 (72)

14 (28)

5.5 (5-6)

23 (Zero-50)

Eight (16)

13 (26)

29 (58)

−Four.5 (−5 to −Four)

62.9 (17.Eight)

28 (41)

40 (59)

27 (40)

6 (9)

13 (19)

1 (1)

7 (10)

14 (21)

15 (Three-15)

54 (79)

9 (13)

2 (Three)

1 (1)

2 (Three)

2 (Three)

66 (97)

Three (Zero-10)

47 (7)

18 (28)

2 (68)

1 (33)

57 (88)

Eight (12)

6 (Three-6)

14 (Zero-59)

28 (43)

11 (17)

26 (40)

−5 (−5 to −1)

63.Four (17.7)

48 (40.Zero)

72 (60.Zero)

55 (45.Eight)

9 (7.5)

25 (20.Eight)

2 (1.7)

10 (Eight.Three)

19 (15.Eight)

15 (Three-15)

98 (81.7)

15 (12.5)

2 (1.7)

1 (Zero.Eight)

Four (Three.Three)

Four (Three.Three)

116 (96.7)

2 (Zero-10)

79 (68.7)

36 (31.Three)

Four (80.Zero)

1 (20.Zero)

93 (80.9)

22 (19.1)

6 (Three-6)

18 (Zero-59)

36 (31.Three)

24 (20.9)

55 (47.Eight)

−5 (−5 to −1)


No. (%) of sufferers

a Impartial t take a look at.

b 2 evaluation.

c Mann-Whitney U take a look at. AJCC AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CRITICAL CARE, January 2021, Quantity 30, No. 1 51

gentle signs. The pretest sociodemographic and psychoemotional variables didn’t differ considerably between the two teams, except for PTSD signs, with a higher share of sufferers within the intervention group having few or no signs (P = .007) (Desk 2).

Effectiveness of the CONECTEM Intervention in Bettering Psychoemotional State

The outcomes of multivariable evaluation of covari- ance with pretest-posttest variations confirmed statis- tically vital variations between teams (Pillai multivariate, F

2,110 = 57.973, P < .001). The univariate

evaluation of variance outcomes confirmed an affiliation between the intervention and enchancment in ache and PTSD signs within the intervention group (P < .001; Desk Three).

Within the comparability of tension (enchancment or nonimprovement) between the two teams, a higher share of sufferers with enchancment was discovered within the intervention group (62% vs Four%), with the distinction being statistically vital (P < .001; Desk Four).

Correlations Amongst Ache, Anxiousness, and PTSD Signs within the Posttest Interval

The Pearson product-moment correlation take a look at indicated vital correlations among the many Three psy- choemotional variables: ache and nervousness (r = Zero.37), ache and PTSD signs (r = Zero.33), and PTSD symp- toms and nervousness (r = Zero.51) (P < .05 for all). These correlation coefficients demonstrated average cor- relation among the many Three variables.

Dialogue Effectiveness of CONECTEM Communication Methods

The power of nurses and important care sufferers to work together is key to their efficient communi- cation.20,30 The outcomes of this examine show that the actions constituting the varied CONECTEM communication methods have been efficient in improv- ing the psychoemotional state of the vital care

sufferers transported by ambulance. Different research primarily based on BCS have additionally indicated enchancment in affected person communication and stage of satisfaction with care.49-51 As well as, using AAC methods with vital care sufferers facilitates nurse-patient communication52 and relieves ache53 and psychoemo- tional signs corresponding to nervousness54 and despair,55 serving to to enhance nursing remedy.6,11,56 Nevertheless, we discovered no research on vital care affected person–nurse AAC within the nonhospital setting, making it not possible to match the consequences of AAC on sufferers on this set- ting with the consequences on sufferers subsequently admit- ted to the ICU. Though Eadie et al34 reported that AAC within the ambulance improved communication between paramedics and sufferers, the literature remains to be inadequate to match the scope of AAC on this subject and what results it may need on a affected person who’s later admitted to a hospital ICU.

Effectiveness of the CONECTEM Intervention in Bettering Ache, Anxiousness, and PTSD Signs

Ache. Ache is without doubt one of the commonest signs in vital care sufferers, no matter their illness, with a prevalence of 70% to 87%.57-59 On this examine, the prevalence of in-ambulance ache in vital care sufferers was 68.7%. Given the problem of measuring ache in critically unwell sufferers, a number of research have been performed on tips on how to improve the effectiveness of the communication of ache between affected person and nurse.60,61 Nurses’ coaching in communication expertise impacts their means to precisely gauge the affected person’s diploma of ache and decide whether or not or not the affected person wants anal- gesic remedy.32,54,62 In the identical vein, the outcomes of


Desk Three Pretest-posttest variations in scores on the visible analog scale for ache (VAS) and the Impression of Occasion Scale (IES)



a ”Pretest” and “posttest” seek advice from earlier than and after the intervention.

b ”Pretest” and “posttest” seek advice from earlier than and after transport.

c From pretest to posttest evaluation of variance.





Zero.1 (1.1)

Zero.Three (Four.1)

2.1 (1.9)

22.7 (12.2)

2.2 (2.2)

22.Four (13.1)

1.9 (1.9)

6.6 (6.Four)

Three.Three (2.6)

17.Eight (15.1)

1.1 (1.6)

11.2 (10.5)

PF 1 , 11 Three cDifferenceDifferencePretesta PretestbPosttesta Posttestb

Rating in management group (n = 50), imply (SD)Rating in intervention group (n = 65), imply (SD)


Desk Four Comparability of tension between groupsa

No change or worsening




48 (96)

2 (Four)

25 (38)

40 (62)

Pb Management group

(n = 50) Intervention group

(n = 65)

a Information are quantity (%) of sufferers.

b From

2 take a look at.

52 AJCC AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CRITICAL CARE, January 2021, Quantity 30, No. 1

this examine present that the ache felt by critically unwell sufferers transported by ambulance decreased by 67% after efficiency of the CONECTEM interven- tion and that the ache that almost all sufferers continued to really feel was gentle. Much less sedation and higher ache remedy contribute to enhancements in sufferers’ well being and restoration.2,14,53,63

Anxiousness. Anxiousness was the psychoemotional vari- ready with the very best incidence on this examine, with 93 (80.9%) of the sufferers transported by ambulance exhibiting this symptom. In distinction, the prevalence of tension in vital care sufferers in ICUs is 30% to 60%.40,64 Earlier research involving acutely aware and oriented vital care sufferers point out that the cramped automobile house, fixed noises and actions, and uncertainty and urgency of the scenario make trans- portation by ambulance annoying for sufferers, which can induce or exacerbate nervousness.65 As well as, stud- ies utilizing music remedy or AAC to cut back nervousness in

ICU sufferers have yielded optimistic outcomes,66,67 con- sistent with this examine (intervention group: 62% nervousness improved vs 38% nervousness not improved [P > .05]).

PTSD Signs. The outcomes of this examine present that 68.7% of the full pattern had average to

extreme signs of PTSD. This prevalence is increased than that reported within the literature for ICU sufferers (20%-27%).Three,68,69 This distinction could also be due partly to the immediacy of the traumatic occasion. Different stud- ies on PTSD have indicated that psychoemotional interventions are more practical if they’re initiated on the onset of signs, which can forestall the necessity for short- or long-term psychiatric remedy.26,70,71

Limitations This examine has limitations. One is the noninde-

pendence of the pattern. One other is that the identical nurses who delivered the intervention to sufferers additionally collected the symptom final result information, which can have launched bias. Furthermore, we didn’t per- kind interstrategy comparability owing to the pattern dimension. Lastly, the cross-sectional design of the examine didn’t permit analysis of PTSD signs within the medium and lengthy phrases or measurement of the continuing adherence of the nurses to the interven- tion. Due to this fact, further research with bigger sam- ples and longitudinal designs are wanted to verify the outcomes obtained on this examine.

Conclusion The CONECTEM intervention demonstrated

effectiveness in bettering the psychoemotional state of vital care sufferers throughout ambulance transport. Moreover, this sort of intervention includes no further price and is simple to imple- ment, making it extremely cost-effective. We subsequently advocate that or not it’s launched as a part of the remedy of vital care sufferers transported by ambulance in emergency medical techniques.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work was carried out within the emergency medical system of Catalonia and the Hospital Transfronterer de Cerdanya, Puigcerdà (Girona), Spain. It was a part of the doctoral thesis of the primary writer (M.P.A.), which was supervised by the second and final authors (M.P.L. and T.L.C.). We thank all the emergency nurses who par- ticipated on this examine.


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